SPECIFICATION FOR MAIDA FOR GENERAL PURPOSES
This Indian Standard (Second Revision) was adopted
by the Indian Standards Institution on 29 June 1979,
after the draft finalized by the Food grains and
Food grain Products Sectional Committee had been
approved by the Agricultural and Food Products Division
0.2 MAIDA (wheat flour) is used in making bread,
different types of biscuits, pastries and a number
of other Products. In India, its largest use is
in the domestic sphere and in the preparation of
Indian sweetmeats. It is manufactured in roller
flour mills. The quality of MAIDA depends largely
on the type of wheat as well as milling technique.
0.3 This standard was first published in 1957 and
Subsequently revised in 1963. In the original version
(1957) two grades of MAIDA were prescribed. However,
during revision, the need was felt to have three
grades, based on the gluten content and these were
incorporated. The limit for gluten content had been
lowered and requirements for crude fibre and acidity
have been deleted. The limits for total ash and
alcoholic acidity were also revised. Besides, as
the compulsory washing of wheat before milling,
was introduced in the country, the limit for moisture
content had been raised. In the second revision
a requirement for the maximum uric acid has been
0.3.1 Further separate standards have been brought
out for wheat flour for use by bread industry (IS:
7464 -1974) and wheat flour for use by biscuit industry
(IS: 7463 -1974). A separate standard IS: 9194-1979
wheat flour for use in cake industry is also being
brought out simultaneously. Therefore in the present
standard the different grades have been deleted
and only one set of requirement has been prescribed
specifying minimum 7.5 percent gluten content.
The Sectional Committee responsible for the preparation
of this standard took into consideration the available
data on the composition of MAIDA manufactured from
different varieties of wheat produced in various
parts of India. In addition to this, due consideration
has also been given to the relevant rules prescribed
by the Government of India under the Prevention
of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and to the Standards
of Weights and Measures (Packaged Commodities) Rules,
1977. However, wherever applicable, this standard
is subject to the restriction imposed under these
This standard contains clauses 4.1.1 and 4.1.2,
which call for an agreement between the purchaser
and the vendor.
0.6 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular
requirement of this standard is complied with, the
final value, observed or calculated, expressing
the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded
off in accordance with IS: 2-1960*. The number of
significant places retained in the rounded off value
should be the same as that of the specified value
in this standard.
*Rules for rounding off numerical values (revised).
1.1 This standard prescribes the requirernents and
the methods of sampling and test for MAIDA for general
2.1 For the purpose of this standard, MAIDA for
general purposes shall mean the product obtained
by milling cleaned, hard or soft wheat or blends
thereof in a roller flour mill and bolting, and
conforming to the requirements specified under 3.
3.1 Description – The material shall be free flowing,
dry to the touch and should not pack when squeezed.
The material shall also be creamy in colour and
free from any visible bran particles. The material
shall have a characteristic taste and smell and
shall be free from insect and fungus infestation,
rodent contamination, dirt and other extraneous
NOTE – The appearance, taste and odour shall be
determined by organoleptic tests.
Microscopic Appearance – When the material is subjected
to microscopic examination, starch granules shall
have the characteristic appearance as shown in photomicrograph
reproduced in Fig. 1, revealing concentric rings
and more small granules than large ones, their size
varying between 5 to 50 cm in diameter.
The material shall also comply with the requirements
given in Table 1.
PACKING AND MARKING
4.1 Packing – The packages may preferably be of
100 g, 200 g, 500 g, 1 kg, 2 kg, 5 kg and thereafter
in multiples of 5 kg as desired by the purchaser.
1 REQUIREMENTS FOR MAIDA
Characteristics Requirement Method
% by mass, Max
13.0 A - 2 Total
ash (on dry basis) % by mass, Max
0.7 B - 3 Acid
insoluble ash (on dry basis) % by mass, Max
0.05 C - 4 Gluten
(on dry basis) % by mass, Min
7.5 D - 5 Alcoholic
acidity (as H2SO4) in 90% alcohol, Max
0.1 E - 6 Granularity To
F - 7 Uric
acid, mg / 100 g, Max
4333 (part V)
— - - - 1970*
of analysis for food grains: Part V Determination
of uric acid.
For packages above 65 kg, unless otherwise agreed
to between the purchaser and the vendor, the material
for packing shall be single, sound A-twill or B-twill
jute bags or DW-flour bags conforming to IS: 1913-1964*,
IS: 2566-1965t and IS: 3984-1967 respectively.
Specification for A-twill jute bags (revised).
Specification for B-twill jute bags (revised).
Specification for DW flour bags
4.1.2 The bags used for smaller packs may he polyethylene
bags or polyethylene lined jute bags or any other
suitable material as agreed to between the purchaser
and the vendor.
4.1.3 The mouth of the bags shall be either machine
stitched or hand stitched. If they are hand stitched,
the mouth shall be rolled over and then stitched.
The stitches shall be in two cross-rows with at
least 14 stitches in each row for jute bags of 65
kg and above.
Marking – Each bag shall be suitably marked so as
to give the following information.
Name of the material.
Month of manufacture.
Name and address of the manufacturer.
Batch or code number.
Net mass and
Other labeling requirements according to the provisions
of the standards of Weights and Measures (Packaged
Commodities Rules, 1977.
All markings shall be applied on the bags in such
a manner that the dye or ink does not penetrate
into the material.
4.2.2 Each bag may also be marked with the ISI Certification
Note – The use of the ISI Certification Mark is
governed by the provisions of the Indian Standards
Institution (Certification Marks) Act and the Rules
and Regulations made there under. The ISI Mark -on
products covered by an Indian Standard conveys the
assurance that they have been Produced to comply
with the requirements of that standard under a well-defined
system of Inspection -testing and quality. Control
which is devised and supervised by 151 and operated
by the producer. ISY marked products are also continuously
checked by ISI for conformity to that standard as
a further safeguard. Details of conditions under
which a license for the use of the ISI Certification
Mark may be granted to manufacturers or processors,
may he obtained from the Indian Standards Institution.
5.1 The method of drawing representative samples
of the material and the criteria for conformity
shall be as prescribed in IS: 5315-1978*.
*Methods of sampling for milled cereals and pulse&
products (first revision).
6.1 Tests shall be carried out as prescribed under
3.1, 3.2 and in the appropriate appendices referred
to in col 4 and 5 of Table 1.
6.2 Quality of Reagents – Unless specified otherwise,
pure chemicals shall be employed in tests and distilled
water (see IS: 1070-1977t) shall- be used where
the use of water as a reagent is intended.
Specification for water for general laboratory use
Note – ‘ Pure chemicals’ shall mean chemicals that
do not contain impurities, which affect the results
(Table 1), Item (i) 1
OF MOISTURE CONTENT
A-1.1 Weigh accurately about 10 g of the material
in a suitable moisture dish, previously dried in
an electric oven and weighed. Place the dish in
an electric oven maintained at 130 to 133’C for
90 minutes. Cool the dish in a desiccator and weigh
with the lid on. Repeat the process of heating,
cooling and weighing at half-hour intervals until
the loss in mass between two successive weighings
is less than 1 mg. Record the lowest mass obtained.
Preserve the dish containing this dried material
in a desiccator for the determination of total ash
A-2.1 Moisture, percent by mass = 100 (M1 – M2)
M1 – M
M1 = mass in g of the moisture dish with the material
M2 = mass in g of the moisture dish with the material
M = mass in g of the empty moisture dish.
(Table 1), Item (ii)
DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ASH
B-1.1 Weigh accurately about 5 g of the preserved
material (see A-1.1) in a tarred, clean and dry
porcelain or silica dish. Ignite the material in
the dish with the flame of a suitable burner for
about 1 hour. Complete the ignition by keeping in
a muffle furnace at 550+ 10 d C until gray ash results.
Cool in a desiccator and weigh. Repeat the process
of igniting, cooling and weighing at half hour intervals
until the difference between two successive weighings
is less than 1 mg. Note the lowest mass. Preserve
this ash for the determination of acid insoluble
ash (see C-2.1)
B-2.1 Total ash (on dry basis), percent by mass
= 100 (M2 – M)
M1 – M
M2 = mass in g of the dish with the ash
M = mass in g of the empty dish
M1 = mass in g of the dish with the dried material
taken for the test.
Table 1, Item (iii)
OF ACID INSOLUBLE ASH
C-1.1 Dilute Hydrochloric Acid -approximately 5
N, prepared from concentrated hydrochloric acid.
C-2.1 To the ash contained in the porcelain or silica
dish (B-1.1) add 25 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid,
cover with a watch glass and heat on a water-bath
for 10 minutes. Allow to cool and filter the contents
of the dish through Whatman filter paper No. 42
or its equivalent. Wash the filter with water until
the washings are free from the acid. Return the
filter and the residue to the dish. Keep it in an
electric air-oven maintained at 130 to 133’C for
about 3 hours. Ignite in a muffle furnace at about
550 ± 10 d C for one hour. Cool the dish
in a desiccator and weigh. Repeat the process of
igniting in the muffle furnace, cooling and weighing
at half-hour interval until the difference between
two successive weighings is less than 1 mg. Note
the lowest mass.
C-3.1 Acid insoluble ash (on dry basis) percent
by mass.= 100 (M2 – M)
M1 – M
M2 = mass in g of the dish with the acid insoluble
M – mass in g of the empty dish; and
M1 = mass in g of the dish with the dried material
taken for the determination of total ash (see B-1.1)
[Table 1, Item (iv)]
D-1.1 Weigh accurately into a dish about 25 g of
the material. Add about 15 ml of water to the material
and make it into dough, taking care to see that
all the material is taken into the dough. Keep the
dough gently in a beaker filled with water and let
it stand for 1 hour. Remove the dough and place
it in a piec2 of bolting silk cloth with, an aperture
of 0,16 mm size (No. 10 XXX) or 150 micron 18 Sieve
(see IS: 460-xl& 1962*) and wash it with a gentle
stream of tap water till water passing through the
silk does not turn blue when a drop of iodine solution
is added to it. Spread the silk tight on a porcelain
plate for facilitating scraping. Transfer the residue
from the silk by means of a spatula, to a tarred
porcelain or silica dish. Spread the wet gluten
into a thin layer and cut into small pieces. Transfer
any residue sticking to the spatula into the dish.
Place the dish in an air-oven maintained at 130
to 133″C. Dry for 2 hours, cool in a desiccator
*Specification for test sieves (revised).
D-2.1 Gluten (on dry basis) percent by mass = 10000(M2
M (100 – M3)
M2 = mass in g of the dish with dry gluten
M1 = mass in g of the empty dish
M = mass in g of the material taken for the test
M3 = percentage of the moisture in the sample (see
Table 1, Item (v)
DETERMINATION OF ALCOHOLIC ACIDITY
E-1.1 Neutral Ethyl Alcohol – 90 percent (V/V).
E-1.2 Standard Sodium Hydroxide Solution – approximately
0.05 N. 1
E-1.3 Phenolphthalein Indicator Solution – Dilute
0.1 g of Phenolphthalein in 100 ml of 60 % (V/V)
E-2.1 Weigh 5 g of sample into a conical stopper
flask and add 50 ml of neutral ethyl alcohol. Stopper,
shake and allow to stand for 24 hours, with occasional
shaking. Filter the alcoholic extract through a
dry filter paper. Titrate the combined alcoholic
extract against 0.05 N standard sodium hydroxide
solution using Phenolphthalein as indicator. Calculate
the percentage of alcoholic acidity as sulphuric
-C-3.1 Alcoholic acidity (as H2SO4) in 90 % alcohol,
% by mass = 24.52 AN
= volume in ml of standard sodium hydroxide solution
used in titration
N = normality of standard sodium hydroxide solution
M = mass in g of the material taken for the test.
Table 1, Item (vi)
1.1 Transfer about 10 g of the material to a hand
silk sieve with an aperture width of 0.18 mm (No.
9 XXX) or 180 micron 15 Sieve (see is: 460-1962*),
and sieve for 2 minutes. Brush the upper surface
of the sieve and sieve again for 1 minute. The material
shall be deemed to have satisfied the requirement
of the test, if no residue is left on the sieve.
*Specification for test sieves (revised).
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